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dbl8,808 posts since 11 Jun 2004
London London

Yes - I think the same thing may have happened on the US show last year. Odd that this can happen these days with common font standards and standardised screen pixel sizes (1920x1080 is used by both 59.94i and 50i HD standards), though mistakes with pixel and display aspect ratios do still get made.


Can someone please explain 59.94 fps to me please? I’ve never understood why it isn’t 60 fps. Was it every 60? I thought it was based on the frequency of American electricity systems. But are they 60Hz, or are they actually 59.94Hz too?


In the days of NTSC black and white (yep - unlike PAL, NTSC doesn't just mean a colour standard) - the US standard was 525 lines at precisely 60 fields per second, giving a line-rate of 15.75kHz. This was all well and good and worked fine.

However when they introduced compatible NTSC colour subcarriers in the mid-to-late 50s (*) the subcarrier that carried the colour information had to be linked to the line-rate to make things work nicely (and improve compatibility by reducing subcarrier visibility on B&W sets etc.). At 15.75kHz the chosen subcarrier frequency relationship with the line-rate threatened to interfere with the FM sound carrier at 4.5MHz that System M used for sound (effectively causing buzzing potentially), so they needed to find a way to change the colour subcarrier frequency, which meant altering the line-rate.

As the number of lines was fixed at 525 (that is baked in to the TVs really), the only way of altering the line rate was to subtly change the field-frequency (or frame-frequency). Doing so by a small amount reduced the chances of interference, but kept full compatibility with existing B&W sets (0.06Hz difference was not an issue)

So since then all '60Hz' (**) broadcast TV has been 59.94Hz and almost all film shot for TV (and even not) is shot or transferred at 23.976Hz (***) so that when 3:2 telecine it goes to 59.94Hz.

The irony is that the interference probably wouldn't have happened that much and could probably have been mitigated over time. Because of it we have 1000/1001 frame/field rates and drop-frame timecode...

(*) There was a CBS 405 line incompatible colour system that was briefly introduced into the US that was effective 405/72fps that sent R, G and B colour sequentially to deliver a 24fps colour signal. As it was incompatible it meant you had to simulcast in colour as the B&W receivers couldn't display colour broadcasts. This could use a B&W camera and B&W CRT with spinning discs in front of it (just like some DLP projectors use today) It didn't last, and the RCA compatible system soon replaced it.

(**) The original Japanese HiVision 1125 HD standard (that 1080i used today is largely derived from) WAS 60.00Hz initially and well into the 80s. There were even complex downconverters required to output a 525/59.94Hz signal (they tried to drop frames around cuts etc.). When the US adopted 1125 for HD they adopted a 59.94Hz version of it instead... There are hopes that 4320/120p will be adopted instead of 4320/119.88p...

(***) Some European film is shot and transferred at 24.000Hz as there is no 59.94Hz to worry about. Some European Blu-rays are thus 24.000p rather than 23.976p.

And just to add to noggin's explanation, here's a video about the 29.97 frame rate.
1
Richard gave kudos
62305821,874 posts since 19 Aug 2005
STV Central Reporting Scotland
Is sofa thing in trouble?

https://www.dailyrecord.co.uk/entertainment/tv-radio/saturday-night-takeaway-ofcom-probe-12503230

Quote:

Ant and Dec's Saturday Night Takeaway is being probed by Ofcom over a competition scandal.

The broadcasting watchdog is investigating the ITV show after a viewer claimed they were turned away after arriving at a hidden location for a chance to win a prize before the deadline.

In the 'Sofawatch: Battle of Britain' segment, hosts Ant and Dec give viewers across the UK a deadline time to find a secret location before battling it out in a giant game of rock, paper, scissors.

Now one viewer claims the off-camera signing-in process meant they were unable to register for the competition before the deadline, reports our sister title Mirror Online.

In regards to the March 10 episode, a spokeswoman for Ofcom told Birmingham Live : "We are investigating whether this programme broke our broadcast competition rules."

After video footage of the secret location was shown on screen, viewers faced a mad dash to reach it in time if they recognised the place.

They were then allocated a number, along with anyone else at the location, which gave them a chance of winning a holiday to Universal Orlando Resort, Florida for the finale.

The terms and conditions of the competition state that Saturday Night Takeaway has the right to stop registering people into the specific are of the location.

This can be when they "reasonably deem it no longer practicable for us to admit any more people into a location".

This can be because the deadline has passed, for health and safety concerns or when inappropriate or threatening behaviour is displayed.

Ant McPartlin's co-host, Dec Donnelly, presented the final two episodes of the hit ITV show on his own after McPartlin stepped back from his TV commitments.

McPartlin was banned from the road for 20 months and fined £86,000 after pleading guilty to driving while more than twice the legal limit.

The TV presenter said he was "truly sorry" after his drink-driving crash let down his family, friends and fans.

Is the next post dreaded?
SkyFan123
STV Central Reporting Scotland
The terms seem quite clear online, but is the website signposted during that segment?

Pretty sure Ant and Dec normally say "Terms and conditions on the website below" and the links to the ITV and STV websites come up.
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stegtv87 gave kudos