Virgin Media uses a third way. They have a network of coax cables to carry TV signals - and allocate some of the frequency band of these cables to carry broadband (the connection TO you is actually carried using the same modulation system as TV signals are carried). They call it fibre, but it doesn't involve fibre coming into your home...
How far does the fibre reach with Virgin? How fast can the coax reach? Obv they're currently providing 300mbit service over the same cables that used to provide 10 thanks to advances in the backhaul, changes in modulation, and newer modems but how fast can the coax theoretically reach?
I guess there is a trade-off between how many residences you run from the same feeder (i.e. how many separate RF slots you need to allocate to each consumer vs how many channels you us vs how granular your network is)
If you want to know the full capacity of a Virgin Media Coax - assuming you got rid of all the TV - then you have around 50 x 8MHz muxes (I think we use 8MHz for cable here) slots used just for TV - which will give you 50Mbs each mux - so that is around 2.5Gbs of bitrate for the digital TV services ignoring what they currently allocate for IP.
AIUI they allocate data using the same modulation scheme as the TV muxes - so 50Mbs=1 mux, 100Mbs=2 muxes etc. so the more muxes each consumer is allocated, the more granular the coax distribution has to be (as fewer people can share the same feed)
(That's unless Virgin are now using DOCSIS 3.1 which doesn't use DVB-C muxes for IP)