In the main, no. Most distribution feeds from studios to broadcast centres are on private fibre networks - usually BT's - so it's very hard to view unless you're the intended recipient.
Some outside broadcasts will use satellite as a main path (if there isn't any fibre on site), or as a reserve. Most of the time, there will be some encryption in use, with the complexity of the encryption depending on the value of the feed - for example, BISS encryption, which (when it was first introduced), would take an hour or two to brute-force crack, by which time a football match would be over. The likes of the World Cup feeds are using a new type of encryption, HMCrypt, which is a step beyond BISS and encrypts at the modulation layer, rather than the MPEG stream. There's also some sort of handshaking between the sender and receiver so that only authorised receivers can decrypt the feed.
However, news hits are often in the clear - when you're booking 10 minutes of satellite space, you don't want to waste any time faffing around with getting the right encryption key, you just want the material.
To view these, you'll need a steerable satellite dish, and a higher-end satellite receiver, and a bit of patience to find the feeds in the first place. I'm sure harshy will be along in a minute to give his experiences!
Receiving satellite broadcasts which aren't intended for you could potentially be illegal under the Communications Act (particularly if it's encrypted), so I'm not going to condone it here - however the chances of you being caught are slim to none.
Your best bet of seeing stuff like this is to train as a broadcast engineer and get a job in an MCR. It's what I did
UKnews, harshy and Luke B gave kudos